The Role of Data Centres in Advancing Green IT: A Literature Review

Anand Santhanam, Christina Keller


The explosion in data consumption and data generation has led to expansion of data centers, which are significant stakeholders in obtaining sustainability. This paper investigates what role data centers can play in advancing sustainability and green IT by performing a literature review. The purpose of the review was to provide a holistic framework that can help to position current and new research on the factors influencing the implementation of green IT in the data center. The review was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. The reviewed papers were analyzed by inductive content analysis, which created the five categories of 1) power savings, 2) cost savings, 3) sustainability and green energy, 4) information technology for greening data centers, and 5) aligning business requirements with resource utilization. Based on these categories, a framework describing how data center can contribute to green IT was created. Power savings and cost savings were found to influence as well as contribute to choices and development of information technology for greening data centers. Also, the categories of sustainability and green energy and alignment of business requirements of business utilization have a bi-directional relationship with information technology used in data centers. The findings further indicate that there is a need to study the alignment of business requirements with resource utilization due to a lack of publications in this area.


Data center, Green IT, Green IS, Sustainability, Literature review

Full Text:



Abe, Y. Ouchi, M. Fukagaya, M. Kitagawa, T. Ohta, H. Shinmoto, Y. and Iimura, K.I. (2010). Development of advanced cooling network systems for data centers, Proceedings of the 2010 14th International Heat Transfer Conference, IHTC 14.

Alaraifi, A. Molla, A. and Deng, H. (2011). Antecedents to Sensor Information Systems assimilation in data centres, Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2011.

Alaraifi, A. Molla, A. and Deng, H. (2012). The assimilation of sensor information systems: An empirical investigation in the data centres industry, International Journal of Business Information Systems, 11(3), pp. 283-303.

Alaravi, A. Molla, A. and Deng, H. (2011). Information systems for data centres: Description and optional characteristics, Proceedings of Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) 2011.

Amokrane, A. Zhani, M.F. Zhang, Q. Langar, R. Boutaba, R. and Pujolle, G. (2015). On satisfying green SLAs in distributed clouds, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Network and Service Management, CNSM 2014.

Anandharajan, T.V. and Bhagyaveni, M.A. (2014). Trust Based VM Consolidation in Cloud Data Centers, in Recent Trends in Computer Networks and Distributed Systems Security (pp. 103-114). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Arnfield, R. (2004). Banking on digital certificates to prevent UK payment fraud, Infosecurity Today, 1(3), pp. 16-18.

Arnoldus, J. Gresnigt, J. Grosskop, K. and Visser, J. (2013). Energy-efficiency indicators for e-services, Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Green and Sustainable Software, GREENS 2013. Telematics and Informatics

Asadi, S. Hussin, A.R.C. and Dahlan H.M. (2017). Organizational research in the field of Green IT: A systematic literature review from 2007 to 2016, Telematics and Informatics, 34, pp. 1191-1249.

Aslekar, A. and Damle, P. (2015). Improving efficiency of data centres in India: A review, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 8, pp. 44-49.

Bagci, F. (2014). Towards performance and power management of cloud servers, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Technology: New Generations.

Beloglazov, A. Abawajy, J. and Buyya, R. (2012). Energy-aware resource allocation heuristics for efficient management of data centers for cloud computing, Future Generation Computer Systems, 28(5), pp. 755- 768.

Beloglazov, A. and Buyya, R. (2010). Energy efficient allocation of virtual machines in cloud data centers, Proceedings of the CCGrid 2010: 10th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Cluster, Cloud, and Grid Computing.

Beloglazov, A. and Buyya, R. (2012). Optimal online deterministic algorithms and adaptive heuristics for energy and performance efficient dynamic consolidation of virtual machines in cloud data centers, Concurrency Computation Practice and Experience, 24(13), pp. 1397-1420.

Berral, J.L. Gavaldà, R. and Torres, J. (2011). Adaptive scheduling on power-aware managed data- centers using machine learning, Proceedings of the 12th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Grid Computing, Grid 2011.

Berral, J.L. Goiri, Í. Nou, R. Julià, F. Guitart, J. Gavaldà, R. and Torres, J. (2010). Towards energy-aware scheduling in data centers using machine learning, Proceedings of the e-Energy 2010: 1st Int'l Conf. on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking.

Bodenstein, C. Hedwig, M. and Neumann, D. (2011). Low-energy automated scheduling of computing resources, Proceedings of the 1st ACM/IEEE Workshop on Autonomic Computing in Economics, ACE'11.

Boudreau, M. C. Chen, A. and Huber, M. (2008). Green IS: Building sustainable business practices. Information systems: A global text 1-17 (2008).

Brandt, T. and Bodenstein, C. (2012). Evaluating scheduling methods for energy cost reduction in a heterogeneous data center environment, Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Infor- mation Systems (ECIS) 2012.

Brooks, S. Wang, X. and Sarker, S. (2010). Unpacking Green IT: A Review of the Existing Literature, Proceedings of Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) 2010.

Brown, B.J. Hanson, M.E. Liverman, D.M. and Merideth Jr, R.W. (1987). Global sustainability: toward definition, Environmental Management, 11(6), pp. 713-719.

Brundtland, G.H. (1987). Our common future—Call for action, Environmental Conservation, 14(04), pp. 291-294.

Cameron, K.W. 2014. Energy efficiency in the wild: Why datacenters fear power management. Computer, 47(11), pp. 89-92.

Capra, E. Francalanci, C. and Slaughter, S.A. (2012). “Is software “green”? Application development environments and energy efficiency in open source applications, Information and Software Technology, 54(1), pp. 60-71.

Capra, E. and Merlo, F. (2009). Green IT: Everything starts from the software, Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2009.

Carter, J. and Rajamani, K. (2010). Designing energy-efficient servers and data centers, Computer, 43(7), pp. 76-78.

Chait, K. and Juiz, C. (2013). Research line on improving energy efficiency in web servers, Proceedings of the 2013 World Congress on Computer and Information Technology, WCCIT 2013.

Chasin, F. (2014). Sustainability: Are We All Talking About the Same Thing? State-of-the-Art and Proposal for an Integrative Definition of Sustainability in Information Systems, Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on ICT for Sustainability (ICT4S) 2014.

Ciglarič, M. (2015). Big cloud infrastructures: How green are they?” Elektrotehniski Vestnik/Electrotechnical Review, 82(5), pp. 265-271.

Dick, M, Naumann, S. and Held, A. (2010). Green Web Engineering: A set of principles to support the development and operation of "green" websites and their utilization during a website’s life cycle, Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technology (WEBIST) 2010.

Drenkelfort, G. Kieseler, S. Pasemann, A.,and Behrendt, F. (2015). Aquifer thermal energy storages as a cooling option for German data centers”, Energy Efficiency, 8(2), pp. 385-402.

Dovers, S. (1989). Sustainability: Definitions. Clarifications and Contexts.

Erek, K. Loeser, F. and Zarnekow, R. (2012). Reference Model for Sustainable Information Systems Management: Establishing a Holistic Research Agenda.

Elliot, S. (2011). Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Environmental Sustainability: A resource base and framework for IT enabled business transformation, Management Information Systems Quarterly, 35(1), pp. 197-236.

Elo, S. and Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62(1), pp. 107-115.

Eshahani, M.D. Rahman, A.A. and Zakaria, N.H. (2014). The Status Quo and the Prospect of Green IT and Green IS: A Systematic Literature Review, Journal of Soft Computing and Decision Support Systems, 2(1), pp. 18-34.

Eshahani, M.D. Rahman, A.A. and Zakaria, N.H. (2015). Green IT/IS Adoption as Corporate Ecological Responsiveness: An Academic Literature Review, Journal of Soft Computing and Decision Support Systems, 2(1), pp. 35-43.

Farahnakian, F. Liljeberg, P. and Plosila, J. (2013a).”LiRCUP: Linear regression based CPU usage prediction algorithm for live migration of virtual machines in data centers, Proceedings of 39th Euromicro Conference Series on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2013.

Farahnakian, F. Pahikkala, T. Liljeberg, P. and Plosila, J. (2013b). Energy aware consolidation algorithm based on K-nearest neighbor regression for cloud data centers, Proceedings of 2013 IEEE/ACM 6th International Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing, UCC 2013.

Farahnakian, F. Liljeberg, P. and Plosila, J. (2014). Energy-efficient virtual machines consolidation in cloud data centers using reinforcement learning, Proceedings of 2014 22nd Euromicro International Conference on Parallel, Distributed, and Network-Based Processing, PDP 2014.

Ferreira, A.M, Kritikos, K. and Pernici, B. (2009). Energy-aware design of service-based applications, in Service-Oriented Computing (pp. 99-114). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Fukaya, M. Ishibashi, H. and Arai, M. (2010). Network platform for next-generation data centers, Fujitsu Scientific and Technical Journal, 46(4), pp. 403-409.

Gabriel, C. (2008). Why it’s not naive to be green, Business Information Review, (25)4), pp. 230-237.

García, D.F. Medrano, R. and Entrialgo, J. (2011). Algorithm to optimize the power consumption of scalable clusters guaranteeing response times, Proceedings of the IADIS International Conferences - Informatics 2011, Wireless Applications and Computing 2011, Telecommunications, Networks and Systems 2011.

Garg, S.K. Yeo, C.S. Anandasivam, A. and Buyya, R. (2010). Environment-conscious scheduling of HPC applications on distributed cloud-oriented data center, Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, 71(6), pp. 732-749.

Garg, S.K. Yeo, C.S. and Buyya, R. (2011). Green cloud framework for improving carbon efficiency of clouds, Vol. 6852 LNCS. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (pp. 491-502).

Gartner. (2013). Data center. Retrieved from: (visited on 10/18/2015)

Germain-Renaud, C. Fürst, F. Jouvin, M. Kassel, G. Nauroy, J. and Philippon, G. (2011). The Green Computing Observatory: A data curation approach for green IT, Proceedings of IEEE 9th International Conference on Dependable, Autonomic and Secure Computing, DASC 2011.

Glavič, P. and Lukman, R. (2007). Review of sustainability terms and their definitions. Journal of cleaner production, 15(18), 1875-1885.

Godbole, N.S. and Lamb, J. (2014). Calculating a hospital’s IT Energy Efficiency and determining cost effective ways for improvement, Proceedings of the 11th International Conference and Expo on Emerging Technologies for a Smarter World, CEWIT 2014.

Godbole, N.S. and Lamb, J. (2015). Using data science and big data analytics to make healthcare green, Proceedings of the 2015 12th International Conference and Expo on Emerging Technologies for a Smarter World, CEWIT 2015.

Goiri, Í. Haque, M.E. Le, K. Beauchea, R. Nguyen, T.D., Guitart, J. ... and Bianchini, R. (2015). Matching renewable energy supply and demand in green datacenters, Ad Hoc Networks, 25, pp. 520-534.

Gorge, M. (2008). Are we being ‘greenwashed’ to the detriment of our organisations’ security? Computer Fraud and Security, 10, pp. 14-18.

Goth, G. (2010). Data center operators face energy irony”, IEEE Internet Computing, 14(2), pp. 7-10.

Graneheim, U.H. and Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness, Nurse Education Today, 24(2), pp. 105-112.

Gu, Q. Lago, P. and Potenza, S. (2012). Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: A green strategy model, Proceedings of the 2012 1st International Workshop on Green and Sustainable Software, GREENS 2012.

Harmon, R.R. Daim, T. and Raffo, D. (2010). Roadmapping the future of sustainable IT, Proceedings of the PICMET '10 - Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology.

Harmon, R.R. and Demirkan, H. (2011). The corporate sustainability dimensions of service-oriented information technology, Proceedings of 2011 Annual SRII Global Conference, SRII 2011.

Hedwig, M. Malkowski, S. and Neumann, D. (2009). Taming energy costs of large enterprise systems through adaptive provisioning. ICIS 2009 Proceedings, 140.

Hertel, M. and Wiesent, J. (2014). Towards an optimal investment budget for green data centers, Proceedings of 22nd European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2014.

Herzog, C. (2013). Standardization bodies, initiatives and their relation to green IT focused on the data centre side, Vol. 8046 LNCS. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (pp. 289-299).

Hintemann, R. and Fichter, K. (2012). Energy consumption and quantities of materials in German data centers, Proceedings of the Electronics Goes Green 2012+, ECG 2012 - Joint International Conference and Exhibition.

Huang, H. (2008). A sustainable systems development lifecycle. PACIS 2008 Proceedings, 81.

Ijab, M.T. Molla, A. and Cooper, V. (2012). Green information systems (green IS) practice in organisation: tracing its emergence and recurrent use, Proceedings of Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) 2012.

Janacek, S. Schomaker, G. and Nebel, W. (2014). Data Center Smart Grid Integration considering Renewable Energies and Waste Heat Usage, in Energy-Efficient Data Centers (pp. 99-109). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Jenkin, T. A. Webster, J. and McShane, L. (2011). An agenda for ‘Green’information technology and systems research. Information and Organization 21(1), 17-40.

Kachris, C. and Tomkos, I. (2013). Power consumption evaluation of all-optical data center networks, Cluster Computing, 16(3), pp. 611-623.

Karanasios, S. Cooper, V. Deng, H. Molla, A. and Pittayachawan, S. (2010). Antecedents to greening data centres: A conceptual framework and exploratory case study, Proceedings of ACIS 2010 21st Australasian Conference on Information Systems.

Kern, E, Dick, M. Johann, T. and Naumann, S. (2011). Green Software and Green IT: An End Users Perspective, in Information Technologies in Environmental Engineering (pp. 199-211). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Khasawneh, N. n.d. Approaching the data center project. Video presentation. Retrieved from: (visited on 08/15/2015)

Klingert, S. Berl, A. Beck, M. Serban, R. Di Girolamo, M. Giuliani, G. and Salden, A. (2012). Sustainable energy management in data centers through collaboration (pp. 13-24).

Knobloch, M. (2013). Energy-Aware High Performance Computing - A Survey, Advances in Computers, 88, pp. 1-78.

Koomey, J.G. (2011). Growth in data center electricity use 2005 to 2010. Stanford University: Analytics Press. Retrieved from:

Kuhlman, T. and Farrington, J. (2010). What is sustainability?, Sustainability, 2(11), pp. 3436-3448.

Lamb, J. (2011). Green IT and use of private cloud computing in South Africa, Proceedings of the 2011 8th International Conference and Expo on Emerging Technologies for a Smarter World, CEWIT 2011.

Lamb, J. and Marimekala, S.K.V. (2013). Smart green infrastructure for innovation and transformation hosting environments, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference and Expo on Emerging Technologies for a Smarter World, CEWIT 2013.

Lamb, J. and Marimekala, S.K.V. (2015). STEM and green IT, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference and Expo on Emerging Technologies for a Smarter World, CEWIT 2015.

Lee, J. Kang, K. and Song, C. (2015). Analyzing I/O patterns for the design of energy-efficient image servers, IPCCC 2014.

Lei, C.F. and Ngai, E.W.T. (2013). Green IT Adoption: An Academic Review of Literature, Proceedings of Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS) 2013.

Lincke, S.J. (2012). Green IT: Serving multiple purposes, Proceedings of SIGITE’12 the ACM Special Interest Group for Information Technology Education Conference.

Liu, L. Masfary, O. and Li, J. (2011). Evaluation of server virtualization technologies for Green IT, Proceedings of Service Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2011 IEEE 6th International Symposium (pp. 79-84). IEEE.

Liu, L. Masfary, O. and Antonopoulos, N. (2012). Energy performance assessment of virtualization technologies using small environmental monitoring sensors, Sensors, 12(5), pp. 6610-6628.

Llopis, P. Blas, J.G., Isaila, F. and Carretero, J. (2013). Survey of energy-efficient and power-proportional storage systems, The Computer Journal, bxt058.

Malik, R. and Barthel, S. (2008). Energy efficiency, its benefits and methods to close the efficiency gap, Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition - APEC.

Marrone, M. Schmidt, N.H. Kossahl, J. and Kolbe, L.M. (2011). Creating a Taxonomy of Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainability, Stakeholders, Environment, and Green IS, and Green IT: A Literature Review, Proceedings of SIGGreen Workshop. Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Systems, pp. 11(17).

Melville, N.P. (2010). Information systems innovation for environmental sustainability, Management Information Systems Quarterly, 34(1), pp. 1-21.

Merlo, F. (2009). Green IT efficiency in the use of energy at the data center The SeeWeb case, Mondo Digitale, 8(3), pp. 72-78.

Mithas, S. Khuntia, J. and Roy, P. K. (2010). Green Information Technology, Energy Efficiency, and Profits: Evidence from an Emerging Economy. In Proceedings of ICIS (p. 11).

Moghaddam, F.F. Moghaddam, R.F. and Cheriet, M. (2012). Multi-level grouping genetic algorithm for low carbon virtual private clouds, Proceedings of the CLOSER 2012.

Moghaddam, F.F. Moghaddam, R.F. and Cheriet, M. (2014). Carbon-aware distributed cloud: multilevel grouping genetic algorithm, Cluster Computing, 18(1), pp. 477-491.

Molla, V. and Cooper, V. (2014). Greening data centres: The motivation, expectancy and ability drivers, Proceedings of European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) 2014.

Murtazaev, A. and Oh, S. (2011). Sercon: Server consolidation algorithm using live migration of virtual machines for green computing, IETE Technical Review, 28(3), pp. 212-231.

Murugesan, S. (2008). Harnessing green IT: Principles and practices”, IT professional, 10(1), pp. 24-33.

Murugesan, S. and Gangadharan, G. (2012). Managing Green IT. Chichester: Wiley-IEEE Press.

Onda, S. Matsuda, T. Kamonji, M. Fukuda, H. Sugiyama, S. and Miyo, M. (2014). Eco-friendly products of Fujitsu Group, Fujitsu Scientific and Technical Journal, 5(:4), pp. 66-77.

Ouchi, M. Abe, Y. Fukagaya, M. Kitagawa, T. Ohta, H. Shinmoto, Y. and Iimura, K.I. (2011). New thermal management systems for data centers, Proceedings of the ASME/JSME 8th Thermal Engineering Joint Conference, AJTEC 2011.

Owens, S. (2003). Is there a meaningful definition of sustainability?, Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization, 1(01), pp. 5-9.

Park, S.H. Eo, J. and Lee, J.J. (2012). Assessing and managing an organization’s green IT maturity, Management Information Systems Quarterly Executive, 11(3), pp. 127 – 140.

Patel, J.U. Guercio, S.J. Bruno, A.E. Jones, M.D. and Furlani, T.R. (2013). Implementing green technologies and practices in a high performance computing center.

Patel, Y.S. Mehrotra, N. and Soner, S. (2015). Green cloud computing: A review on Green IT areas for cloud computing environment, Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Futuristic Trends in Computational Analysis and Knowledge Management, ABLAZE 2015.

Pawlish, M. Varde, A.S. and Robila, S.A. (2012). Cloud computing for environment-friendly data centers, Proceedings of the International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management.

Pawlish, M. Varde, A.S. and Robila, S.A. (2012). Analyzing utilization rates in data centers for optimizing energy management, IGCC 2012.

Pawlish, M. Varde, A.S. Robila, S.A. and Ranganathan, A. (2014). A call for energy efficiency in data centers, ACM SIGMOD Record, 43(1), pp. 45-51.

Penzenstadler, B. (2013). Towards a Definition of Sustainability in and for Software Engineering, Proceedings of the 28th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (pp. 1183-1185).

Peoples, C. Parr, G. and McClean, S. (2011). Context-aware characterisation of energy consumption in data centres, Proceedings of the 12th IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management, IM 2011.

Petrovic, N. Jeremic, V. and Isljamovic, S. (2011). Going green: Cloud computing and sustainability, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Strategic Management and its Support by Information Systems, 2011.

Piazzolla, P. Ciardo, G. and Miner, A. (2015). Power consumption analysis of replicated virtual applications. (pp. 188-202).

Rao, V.V. and Rao, M.V. (2015). Monitoring, introspecting and performance evaluation of server virtualization in cloud environment using feedback control system design, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 80(2), pp. 278-295.

Rao, S.V.R.K. Saravanakumar, J. Sundararaman, K. Parthasarathi, J. and Ramesh, S. (2011). Intelligent GreenIT management for enterprises through system profiling, Green Com, 2011.

Ruth, S. (2009). Green IT - More than a three percent solution?, IEEE Internet Computing, 13(4), pp. 74-78.

Ruth, S. (2011). Reducing ICT-related Carbon Emissions: An Exemplar for Global Energy Policy?, IETE Technical Review, 28(3), pp. 207-211.

Sabbir Hasan, M. and Huh, E.N. (2013). Heuristic based energy-aware resource allocation by dynamic consolidation of virtual machines in cloud data center, KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 7(8), pp. 1825-1842.

Sabharwal, M. Agrawal, A. and Metri, G. (2013). Enabling green IT through energy-aware software, IT Professional, 15(1), pp. 19-27.

Sarkis, J. and Sundarraj, R.P. (2003). Managing large-scale global enterprise resource planning systems: a case study at Texas Instruments, International Journal of Information Management, 23(5), pp. 431-442.

Sarkis, J. and Sundarraj, R.P. (2006). Evaluation of enterprise information technologies: a decision model for high-level consideration of strategic and operational issues, Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Applications and Reviews, IEEE Transactions on, 36(2), pp. 260-273.

Sarkis, J. and Talluri, S. (2004). Evaluating and selecting e-commerce software and communication systems for a supply chain, European Journal of Operational Research, 159(2), pp. 318-329.

Sarood, O. Miller, P. Totoni, E. and Kale, L.V. (2012). Load Balancing for High Performance Computing Data Centers, IEEE Transactions on Computers, 61(12), pp. 1752-1764.

Schott, B. and Emmen, A. (2010). Green methodologies in Desktop-Grid: An invitation for discussion by the DEGISCO project, Proceedings of the International Multi conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, IMCSIT 2010.

Schott, B. and Emmen, A. (2011). Green desktop-grids: Scientific impact, carbon footprint, power usage efficiency, Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience, 12(2).

Schödwell, B. Erek, K. and Zarnekow, R. (2013). Data center green performance measurement: State of the art and open research challenges, Proceedings of the 19th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2013.

Seegolam, A. and Usmani, K.A. (2014). Understanding the maturity of EU code of conduct on data centres: A Mauritian case study explained, Proceedings of the 2014 IST-Africa Conference and Exhibition, IST-Africa 2014.

Shaw, S.B. and Singh, A. K. (2014). A survey on cloud computing, Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Green Computing, ICGCCEE 2014.

Siddavatam, I. Johri, E. and Patole, D. (2011). Optimization of load balancing algorithm for green IT, Proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology 2011, ICWET 2011.

Simmonds, D. and Bhattacherjee, A. (2012). Environmental sustainability in organizations: The information technology role, Proceedings of Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) 2012.

Smith, A.D. (2011). Strategic sustainability and operational efficiency dilemma of data centres, International Journal of Business Information Systems, 8(2), pp. 107-130.

Singh, V.K. Dutta, K. and VanderMeer, D. (2013). Estimating the energy consumption of executing software processes, Proceedings of 2013 IEEE International Conference on Green Computing and Communications and IEEE Internet of Things and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing, GreenCom-iThings-CPSCom 2013.

Skejić, E. Džindo, O. and Demirović, D. (2010). Virtualization of hardware resources as a method of power savings in data center, in MIPRO, 2010 Proceedings of the 33rd International Convention (pp. 636-640). IEEE.

Stansberry, M. (2013). The future of green IT: Solving the accountability issue, Computer, 46(7), pp. 91-93.

Subburaj, S. Kulkarni, S. and Jia, L. (2014). Green IT: Sustainability by aligning business requirements with IT resource utilization, International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems, 12(1), pp. 30-46.

Tae, H.S. Yun, Y.G. Park, K.R. and Kim, J.M. (2014). Application of the in-rack system and ventilation path for efficiency increase in datacentre cooling, Life Science Journal, 11(10), pp. 165-169.

Taj, N. and Basu, A. (2015). Energy management in a data center, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 10(69), pp. 345-350.

Tian, Y. Lin, C. Chen, Z. Wan, J. and Peng, X. (2013). Performance evaluation and dynamic optimization of speed scaling on web servers in cloud computing, Tsinghua Science and Technology, 18(3), pp. 298- 307.

Tushi, B. Sedera, D. and Recker, J. (2014). Green IT segment analysis: an academic literature review. Proceedings of Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) 2014.

Uddin, M. and Rahman, A.A. (2011). Techniques to implement in green data centres to achieve energy efficiency and reduce global warming effects, International Journal of Global Warming, 3(4), pp. 372-389.

Uddin, M. and Rahman, A.A. (2012a). Energy efficiency and low carbon enabler green IT framework for data centers considering green metrics, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(6), pp. 4078-4094.

Uddin, M. and Rahman, A.A. (2012b). Validation of green IT framework for implementing energy efficient green data centres: A case study, International Journal of Green Economics, 6(4), pp. 357-374.

Uddin, M. Rahman, A.A., Kazi, S. and Alsaqour, R. (2012c). Classification of data center to maximize energy utilization and save total cost of ownership, International Review on Computers and Software, 7(5), pp. 2106-2115.

Uddin, M. Shah, A. Alsaqour, R. and Memon, J. (2013). Measuring efficiency of tier level data centers to implement green energy efficient data centers, Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 15(2), pp. 200-207.

Uddin, M. Alsaqour, R. Shah, A. and Saba, T. (2014a). Power usage effectiveness metrics to measure efficiency and performance of data centers, Applied Mathematics and Information Sciences, 8(5), pp. 2207-2216.

Uddin, M. Shah, A. and. Memon, J. (2014b). Energy efficiency and environmental considerations for green data centres, International Journal of Green Economics, 8(2), pp. 144-157.

Uptime Institute. (2016). Explaining the Uptime Institute’s Tier Classification System. Retrieved April 3, 2016 from:

Watson, R.T. Boudreau, M.C. and Chen, A.J. (2010). Information systems and environmentally sustainable development: energy informatics and new directions for the IS community, Management Information Systems Quarterl,y 34(1), p. 4.

Webster, J. and Watson, R.T. (2002). Analyzing the past to prepare for the future: Writing a literature review, Management Information Systems Quarterly, 26(2), pp. xiii-xxiii.

White, M.A. (2013). Sustainability: I know it when I see it, Ecological Economics, 86, pp. 213-217.


Vereecken, W. Vanheddeghem, W. Colle, D. Pickavet, M. Dhoedt, B. and Demeester, P. (2012). The environmental footprint of data centers: the influence of server renewal rates on the overall footprint, in Green Communications and Networks (pp. 823-831). Springer Netherlands.

Vodel, M. Ritter, M. and Hardt, W. (2015). Adaptive Sensor Data Fusion for Efficient Climate Control Systems, in Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Access to Interaction (pp. 582-593). Springer International Publishing.

Yoshino, M. Nishibe, N. Oba, M. and Komoda, N. (2010). Classification of energy-saving operations from the perspective of system management, Proceedings of Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2010 8th IEEE International Conference on (pp. 651-656). IEEE.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.





Copyright © 2014 Penerbit UTM Press. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. All rights reserved.

Mailing Address: Penerbit UTM Press, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.