Evaluation and Validation International Students’ Psychological Wellbeing Scale (ISPWS): Application of Rasch Measurement Model
Today, the scenario in which people spend their whole lives in one place is no longer true for many. Thus, individuals around the world experience major changes in their lives when relocating and these variations require them to adapt to new situations. There is a lack of assessment instrument related psychological constructs for its occurrence, resulting in a substantial gap in researchers’ understanding of the phenomena. The aim of this study is to prepare a set of useful and valid instrument based on the four important construct to assess psychological wellbeing among international students. This study conducted in five public research universities in Malaysia. The sample consisted of 442 male and female international students. The sampling technique in this research was purposive and quota sampling. The design of this study was conducted as survey research using a set of questionnaire. The result of this study showed the final format of the questionnaire was validated and the instrument is qualified to be used in related future studies to evaluate the overall psychological wellbeing of international students over the worlds based on four main factors which included in this survey (homesickness, mental health, attachment, and spiritual wellbeing). Advances in research on this topic may aid in the development of instrument, helping counselors to scale students’ psychological wellbeing and try to help them to have more successful academical and social life.
Adams, T. B., Bezner, J. R., Drabbs, M. E., Zambarano, R. J. and Steinhardt, M. A. (2000). Conceptualization and measurement of the spiritual and psychological dimensions of wellness in a college population. Journal of American college health, 48(4), 165-173
AhmadiGatab, T. (2011). Studying The Relationship Between Life Quality and Religious Attitude With Students General Health. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1976-1979.
Bakhshani, N. (2007). Role of personality styles (sociotropy/autonomy) and moderating effects of social support in clinically depressed patients. Journal of Medical Sciences, 7, 106-110.
Beck, R., Taylor, C. and Robbins, M. (2003). Missing home: Sociotropy and autonomy and their relationship to psychological distress and homesickness in college freshmen. Anxiety, stress, and coping, 16(2), 155-166.
Benn, L., Harvey, J., Gilbert, P. and Irons, C. (2005). Social rank, interpersonal trust and recall of parental rearing in relation to homesickness. Personality and individual differences, 38(8), 1813-1822.
Berry, K., Wearden, A. and Barrowclough, C. (2007). Adult attachment styles and psychosis: an investigation of associations between general attachment styles and attachment relationships with specific others. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 42(12), 972-976.
Bifulco, A., Moran, P., Ball, C. and Bernazzani, O. (2002). Adult attachment style. I: Its relationship to clinical depression. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37(2), 50-59.
Bifulco, A., Moran, P., Ball, C. and Lillie, A. (2002). Adult attachment style. II: Its relationship to psychosocial depressive- vulnerability. Social Psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 37(2), 60-67.
Bradley, G. (2000). Responding effectively to the mental health needs of international students. Higher Education, 39(4), 417-433.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American psychologist, 32(7), 513.
Cetinkaya-Yildiz, E., Cakir, S. G. and Kondakci, Y. (2011). Psychological distress among international students in Turkey. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(5), 534-539.
Chang, C.-S., Chang, F. M., Nakagaki, H., Morita, I., Tsuboi, S., Sakakibara, Y., et al. (2010). Comparison of the oral health and self-rated general health status of undergraduate students in Taiwan and Japan. Journal of Dental Sciences, 5(4), 221-228.
Colarossi, L. G. and Eccles, J. S. (2003). Differential effects of support providers on adolescents' mental health. Social Work Research, 27(1), 19-30.
Elizabeth Rippentrop, A., Altmaier, E. M., Chen, J. J., Found, E. M. and Keffala, V. J. (2005). The relationship between religion/spirituality and physical health, mental health, and pain in a chronic pain population. Pain, 116(3), 311-321.
Emery, E. E. and Pargament, K. I. (2004). The many faces of religious coping in late life: Conceptualization, measurement, and links to well-being. Ageing International, 29(1), 3-27.
Eurelings‐Bontekoe, E. H., Brouwers, E., Verschuur, M. and Duijsens, I. (1998). DSM‐III‐R and ICD‐10 personality disorder features among women experiencing two types of self‐reported homesickness: An exploratory study. British Journal of Psychology, 89(3), 405-416.
Fisher, J. (2012). Staff’s and family members’ spiritual well-being in relation to help for residents with dementia. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 2(4), p77.
Fisher, J. (2013). You Can’t Beat Relating with God for Spiritual Well-Being: Comparing a Generic Version with the Original Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire Called SHALOM. Religions, 4(3), 325-335.
Fisher, J. and Brumley, D. (2008). Nurses' and carers' spiritual wellbeing in the workplace.
Fisher, J. W. (2001). Comparing levels of spiritual well-being in State, Catholic and Independent schools in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Beliefs and Values, 22(1), 99- 105.
Fisher, J. W. (2012). The importance of relating with God for spiritual well-being. Spirituality: New reflections on theory, praxis & pedagogy, 147-161.
Fisher, S. and Hood, B. (1988). Vulnerability factors in the transition to university: Self‐reported mobility history and sex differences as factors in psychological disturbance. British Journal of Psychology, 79(3), 309-320.
Fournier, M. A., Moskowitz, D. and Zuroff, D. C. (2002). Social rank strategies in hierarchical relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(2), 425.
Francis, L. J., Robbins, M., Lewis, C. A., Quigley, C. F. and Wheeler, C. (2004). Religiosity and general health among undergraduate students: a response to. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(3), 485-494.
Gilbert, P. (2000). The relationship of shame, social anxiety and depression: The role of the evaluation of social rank. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 7(3), 174-189.
Given, L. M. (2008). Qualitative Research Methods (Vol. 2): Sage.
Greven, C., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Arteche, A. and Furnham, A. (2008). A hierarchical integration of dispositional determinants of general health in students: The Big Five, trait emotional intelligence and humour styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(7), 1562-1573.
Grimes, K. Coming to College: Correlations between Loneliness, Homesickness and Spiritual Well-Being.
Hack-Polay, D. (2012). When Home Isn’t Home–A Study of Homesickness and Coping Strategies among Migrant Workers and Expatriates. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 4(3), p62.
Hammermeister, J., Flint, M., El-Alayli, A., Ridnour, H. and Peterson, M. (2005). Gender differences in spiritual well-being: are females more spiritually-well than males? American Journal of Health Studies, 20(1/2), 80.
Harvey, I. S. (2013). The role of spirituality and Africana womanism in the self- management of chronic conditions among older African Americans. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 3(12), p81.
Hatamzadeh, A., Molaie, A. and Shahidi, S. (2012). Effectiveness of Group Psycho Educational Training of Emotional Intelligence on Alexithymia and General Health in Iranian Students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 968-972.
Hendrickson, B., Rosen, D. and Aune, R. K. (2011). An analysis of friendship networks, social connectedness, homesickness, and satisfaction levels of international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35(3), 281-295.
Hojat, M. and Herman, M. W. (1985). Adjustment and psychosocial problems of Iranian and Filipino physicians in the US. Journal of clinical psychology, 41(1), 130-136.
Ibrahim, A. K., Kelly, S. J., Adams, C. E. and Glazebrook, C. (2012). A systematic review of studies of depression prevalence in university students. Journal of psychiatric research.
Jafari, E., Dehshiri, G. R., Eskandari, H., Najafi, M., Heshmati, R. and Hoseinifar, J. (2010). Spiritual well-being and mental health in university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 1477-1481.
Johnstone, B., Yoon, D. P., Cohen, D., Schopp, L. H., McCormack, G., Campbell, J., et al. (2012). Relationships among spirituality, religious practices, personality factors, and health for five different faith traditions. Journal of religion and health, 51(4), 1017- 1041.
Jung, E., Hecht, M. L. and Wadsworth, B. C. (2007). The role of identity in international students’ psychological well-being in the United States: A model of depression level, identity gaps, discrimination, and acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 31(5), 605-624.
Keogh, B., O’brien, F. and Neenan, K. (2009). The clinical experiences of mature mental health nursing students in Ireland. Nurse Education in Practice, 9(4), 271-276.
Lee, J.-S., Koeske, G. F. and Sales, E. (2004). Social support buffering of acculturative stress: A study of mental health symptoms among Korean international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28(5), 399-414.
Makanui, P. K. (2012). Exploring Spirituality and Mechanisms Affecting Mental Health Outcomes: An Examination of Youth in Foster Care.
McFadden, D. M. (2006). An Investigation of the Lived Experience of Spirituality and Religion in the Lives of Those Diagnosed with a Severe Or Chronic Mental Illness: St. Mary's University, San Antonio, Texas.
McKinlay, N., Pattison, H. and Gross, H. (1996). An exploratory investigation of the effects of a cultural orientation programme on the psychological well-being of international university students. Higher Education, 31(3), 379-395.
Miner, M. (2009). The impact of child-parent attachment, attachment to God and religious orientation on psychological adjustment. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 37(2), 114.
Muda, W. (2008). The Malaysian national higher education action plan: Redefining autonomy and academic freedom under the APEX experiment. Proceedings of the 2008 ASAIHL Conference, University Autonomy: Interpretation and Variation, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 12-14.
Peng, L., Zhang, J., Li, M., Li, P., Zhang, Y., Zuo, X., et al. (2012). Negative life events and mental health of Chinese medical students: The effect of resilience, personality and social support. Psychiatry research, 196(1), 138-141.
Poyrazli, S. and Lopez, M. D. (2007). An exploratory study of perceived discrimination and homesickness: A comparison of international students and American students. The Journal of Psychology, 141(3), 263-280.
Romaniuk, M. and Khawaja, N. G. (2013). University student depression inventory (USDI): Confirmatory factor analysis and review of psychometric properties. Journal of affective disorders.
Sacks, S. K. (2002). The Relationship Between Spiritual Belief, Life Attitude, and Mental Health Among Physical Fitness Participants in Northern Indiana: Andrews University, School of Education.
Sandhu, D. S. (1994). An examination of the psychological needs of the international students: Implications for counselling and psythotherapy. International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling, 17(4), 229- 239.
Scott, J. (2005). On Spiritual Homesickness: Mothering Peace in HD’s The Gift. Journal of the Motherhood Initiative for Research and Community Involvement, 7(1).
Stroebe, M., Vliet, T., Hewstone, M. and Willis, H. (2002). Homesickness among students in two cultures: Antecedents and consequences. British Journal of Psychology, 93(2), 147-168.
Tajalli, P. and Ganbaripanah, A. (2010). The relationship between daily hassles and social support on mental health of university students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 99-103.
Tartakovsky, E. (2007). A longitudinal study of acculturative stress and homesickness: high-school adolescents immigrating from Russia and Ukraine to Israel without parents. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 42(6), 485-494.
Tartakovsky, E. (2008). Psychological well-being and ethnic identities of Jewish adolescents planning emigration from Russia and Ukraine to Israel: Changes during the post- perestroika period. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(6), 553-564.
Taylor, R. J., Chatters, L. M. and Jackson, J. S. (2007). Religious and spiritual involvement among older African Americans, Caribbean blacks, and non-Hispanic whites: Findings from the national survey of American life. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 62(4), S238-S250.
Thurber, C. A. (1995). The experience and expression of homesickness in preadolescent and adolescent boys. Child development, 66(4), 1162-1178.
Thurber, C. A. and Sigman, M. D. (1998). Preliminary models of risk and protective factors for childhood homesickness: Review and empirical synthesis. Child Development, 69(4), 903-934.
Thurber, C. A. and Walton, E. A. (2012). Homesickness and Adjustment in University Students. Journal of American College Health, 60(5), 415-419.
Tilburg, M. A. V., Vingerhoets, A. J. and Heck, G.
L. V. (1999). Determinants of homesickness chronicity: coping and personality. Personality and individual differences, 27(3), 531-539.
van Tilburg, M. A., Eurelings-Bontekoe, E. H., Vingerhoets, A. J. and Van Heck, G. L. (1999). An exploratory investigation into types of adult homesickness. Psychotherapy and psychosomatics, 68(6), 313-318.
Verschuur, M. J., Eurelings-Bontekoe, E. H., Spinhoven, P. and Duijsens, I. J. (2003). Homesickness, temperament and character. Personality and individual differences, 35(4), 757-770.
Vitasari, P., Wahab, M. N. A., Herawan, T., Othman, A. and Sinnadurai, S. K. (2011). Re-test of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) among engineering students in Malaysia: reliability and validity tests. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 3843-3848.
von Lersner, U., Wiens, U., Elbert, T. and Neuner, F. (2008). Mental health of returnees: refugees in Germany prior to their state- sponsored repatriation. BMC international health and human rights, 8(1), 8.
Walker, K. L. and Dixon, V. (2002). Spirituality and academic performance among African American college students. Journal of Black Psychology, 28(2), 107-121.
Wedekind, D., Bandelow, B., Heitmann, S., Havemann-Reinecke, U., Engel, K. R. and Huether, G. (2013). Attachment style, anxiety coping, and personality-styles in withdrawn alcohol addicted inpatients. Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 8(1), 1.
Wilgis, M. J. (2007). A systematic review of recent research on adolescent religiosity/spirituality and aggressive/violent behavior.
Wong, D. F. K. and Leung, G. (2008). The functions of social support in the mental health of male and female migrant workers in China. Health & Social Work, 33(4), 275-285.
Yeh, P.-M. and Bull, M. (2009). Influences of spiritual well-being and coping on mental health of family caregivers for elders. Research in gerontological nursing, 2(3), 173-181.
- There are currently no refbacks.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.